Your surgeon will explain which type of surgery you are to undergo and why but these are the most common types of colostomy surgery.
Adominoperineal excision of rectum (APER)
This operation is carried out if you need to have the lower part of the large bowel, including the rectum, removed. This is most commonly due to cancer very low down in the back passage. The original anal opening will be sutured closed and the colostomy is permanent.
This operation is often carried out to form a stoma for those suffering from diverticular disease or cancer in the sigmoid colon. Once the affected part of the colon is removed, a colostomy is formed from the functioning end. The non functioning end is usually sealed inside the abdomen but may sometimes be brought to the surface to form a mucous fistula. As the rectum is left in place, the remaining bowel will continue to produce mucus, which will be expelled via the anus, or mucous fistula if one has been formed. This operation is usually reversible.
Transverse (Defunctioning) loop colostomy (with or without removal of a section of the bowel).
A transverse colostomy is performed when the bowel needs to be de-functioned higher up, for example in order to relieve an obstruction lower in the bowel, bypass diseased bowel or to allow healing of a distal anastomosis (where unhealthy bowel has been removed and rejoined lower in the digestive tract).This stoma is often reversible.